By Sainan Sun
The inland of Antarctica is covered by thick ice of up to 4000 meters, which is accumulated over thousands of year. During this long term, ice is compressed in layers and we can get historical climate information from these layers.
Therefore, the internal structure and ice properties, as well as the basal properties are of glaciological and climatological interest. Ice-radar is a very useful tool for the study of glaciers and ice sheets. Nowadays, ice-radar is widely used in the study of Antarctica.
Radio-echo sounding techniques are based on the propagation of electromagnetic wave through the ice. A radar system contains the wave generator, the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna.
The transmitter sends a pulse downwards and it is partially reflected at discontinuities and travels back to the surface, where the signals are detected by the receiver.